1. Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay. Although the United States does not formally participate in the SICREMI network of migration correspondents for the Americas, its statistics are readily available and have been incorporated where appropriate.
2. Chile can also be part of this group, but the permanent/temporary nature of immigration in Chile is not determined at the time of entry but after two years. In other words, immigration income statistics mix permanent and temporary immigrants, so the relative size of the two groups is uncertain.
3. The terms “asylum-seeker” and “refugee” are often confused: “asylum-seeker” refers to someone who has applied for refugee status but whose application has not yet been finally decided. A refugee is someone whose claim for asylum has been recognized.
4. However, it may not be accurate, especially in circumstances where movement is relatively free, where the advantage of acquiring the nationality of the country of residence is less obvious.
5. Chile became the first South American member of the OECD in 2010.
6. Canada, Chile, Mexico, Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Korea.
7. OECD countries include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Holland, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, United States, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Sweden and Switzerland. Germany is not included in the sample as the country of origin is not identified in the German labor force survey.
8. Source: Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC), 2005/06.
9. For more discussion on this topic see Borjas (1999).
10 A certain proportion of immigrants over the age of 15 arrived as children and over time have joined the working-age population. They are the children of immigrants from previous migratory movements and eventually increase the proportion of immigrants of working age.
11. Many unauthorized migrants in the United States respond to surveys and censuses conducted by the United States Census Bureau. Indeed, it was the discovery by the 2000 Population Census that the United States had grown by approximately 8 million more people than expected that revealed the large number of unauthorized immigrants in the American economy and society, figures that They have decreased somewhat as a result of the crisis but remain at around 10.5 to 11 million people.
12. That is, the migrants from Central America and the Caribbean mainly go to the United States, while the South Americans have gone more to Spain.
13. Because universes are not always very large, some of the observed changes can be attributed to variability in sampling.
14. Low level of education here refers to educational attainment less than upper secondary education, middle to upper secondary education, and upper to tertiary education. Tertiary may include some high level technical or professional qualifications considered equivalent to university short programmes.
15. One study (Oreopoulos 2011) suggests that after five years of work experience (in Canada), employers in that country do not care where qualifications were obtained.
16, See OECD (2010) for further discussion of the prevalence of involuntary unemployment and the possible negative impacts of part-time work on wages, job security and career prospects, among others.
17. In what follows, the terms self-employed and entrepreneur are used interchangeably, although these terms obviously have different connotations. The term “entrepreneur” in particular is reserved for business owners with employees and significant economic activity. The self-employed, on the other hand, can include professionals but also small shopkeepers, traders and street vendors, who may or may not have employees. With the available statistics, it is not always possible to identify when a self-employed person has employees or even if a salaried worker is a working owner (see footnote 11 on the previous page) of an incorporated company. Therefore, the statistics are presented here with the intention of being indicative. See OECD (2010).