In 2010 and 2011 there have been some small initial signs of recovery in many OECD countries, but the general situation of immigrants from the Americas in the labor market cannot be said to have improved much. Graph 9 shows the evolution of the situation
(Graph 9: Evolution of labor insertion of workers from the Americas in the United States and Spain by place of birth and sex 2007-2011)
tion of the labor market of emigrants from the Americas from 2007 to 2011 in the two economies in which emigrants from the Americas are concentrated. In both countries, migrants were employed in sectors where economic activity is more cyclical, such as construction, services, and retail, and were more likely to be in temporary jobs (not renewed if the economic outlook deteriorate) or with less antiquity.
Signs of a slight increase in employment and a drop in unemployment after 2009 are visible among emigrants from the Americas in the United States. The situation is not the same as in Spain, where the employment of migrants continues to deteriorate, although less so among emigrants from the Americas than among migrants from elsewhere. Indeed, the evolution of employment and unemployment in Spain among emigrants from the Americas is now similar to that of Spaniards. At the beginning of the crisis, it was more similar to that of other migrants. This may reflect the fact that initially emigrants from the Americas were just as likely as other migrants to lose their jobs but had certain advantages, for example linguistic, when they tried to re-enter the labor market after losing a job. Although they undoubtedly remain much more unemployed than the Spanish, their results have begun to diverge favorably with respect to the other migrants.
This overview hides the situation for individual countries and groups that is offered in Table 8. A shade of gray highlights that the indicator in question has increased (participation rate, employment-participation ratio) or decreased (unemployment rate). at least one percentage point from 2009-2010 to 2010-2011. That is, gray indicates what can be considered a positive development. A blue hue, on the other hand, indicates the opposite, a change for the worse.13 Estimates have had to be averaged to ensure samples of sufficient size to produce more reliable estimates of change. However, since the averages have a year in common (2010), the measurement of change essentially reflects the change from 2009 to 2011, tempered by a situation without change for the year in common.
Overall, as seen above, the changes observed from 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 are generally limited both overall and in the United States, but not in Spain. There, the labor market situation of all groups except male emigrants from the Americas deteriorated from 2009 to 2011, with the exception of participation rates, which have generally remained the same for all groups and have even increased among women.
For women in many countries of the Americas, insertion in the labor market has experienced an unfavorable turn. This is especially the case with respect to employment and unemployment outcomes, while the labor force participation rate has been less affected. On the other hand, there are signs of an improving labor market for Caribbean men in particular and to a lesser extent for Central American men. This reflects to some extent improvements in the US economy. However, the improvements are modest; and they do not seem significant when considering the total number of emigrants from the Americas in the United States, no doubt because the situation of the largest group, migrants from Mexico, has improved only slightly.
The labor market situation for emigrants from the Americas seems to have generally stabilized, compared to the sharp deterioration perceived from 2007 to 2009. There are some countries that have been less “penalized”, in part because of their concentration of migrants in the United States. , where the deterioration has not been as severe as in Spain. With the debt crisis on top of the economic crisis in Spain, the labor market situation shows little sign of improving. However, the trend in labor market outcomes for emigrants from the Americas
(Table 8: Labor insertion of emigrant workers from the Americas, by country of birth and sex, average 2009-2010 and 2010-2011)
Employers in Spain now seem to be following that of Spaniards, which is a good sign for the future, since it suggests that employers when rehiring do not distinguish, or distinguish to a lesser extent, between natives and others. Spanish speakers.
The economic situation in the United States also shows some small positive signs for emigrants from the Americas who live in that country. Participation rates remain very high and employment and unemployment situations appear to be improving somewhat more for emigrants, particularly for men from the Americas than for native-born or other migrants. However, the labor market insertion of migrant women from the Americas is deteriorating in the United States, as elsewhere. The labor market situation remains generally difficult and a return to the economic conditions of 2007 is not yet on the horizon.