Canada welcomed 259,000 new permanent residents in 2013, the equivalent of about 0.7% of the resident population and close to the average since 2005. Over the past decade, the role of net migration in Canadian population growth was twofold. times more important than the natural increase.
Canada sets annual goals for permanent resident arrivals and for unique categories; the range of total projected admissions for 2013 was 240,000 – 265,000, the same as in 2006. In 2013, admissions in each category were within the planned range except for family reunification. 57% of entries in 2013 were economic immigrants (including spouses/partners and dependents), 31% in the family reunification category, and 12% were protected persons and other immigrants. The share of family-type immigrants increased 32% from 2010 to 2013 (from 60,100 entries to 79,600) as a result of expedited processing of applications, following a temporary pause in accepting new sponsorship applications for the Parents and Grandparents Program . As a result, the upper limit of admissions was exceeded. Since its launch in December 2011, 20,000 multiple-entry “Super Visas” have been issued to parents and grandparents valid for 10 years with an approval rate as of June 2013 of 85%. The number of entries for other reasons decreased in the same period, especially the number of relatives accompanying the holder of a work permit.
In Canada, the number of new asylum applications halved in 2013 compared to 2012, with 10,360 new applications in 2013. Additionally, Canada fell short of its 2012 target for refugees receiving government assistance.
China (13.1%), India (11.8%) and the Philippines (10.6%) continue to be the top countries of origin for Canada’s permanent residents. The Philippines (16.7%) was the main origin of economic migrants, China (20.8%) of family migrants and Iraq (14.7%) of humanitarian migrants.
Immigrants remain skilled: 42% (68,000) of permanent residents between the ages of 25 and 64 who entered in 2012 had completed tertiary education.
Canada has experienced significant growth in temporary migration, which is more dependent on demand than inflows from permanent residents. In 2013, 344,190 new temporary foreign workers and international students entered the country, a 15% increase from 2010, with increases in both temporary foreign workers (221,310) and international students (111,900). In 2013, 27,700 Seasonal Agricultural Workers came to Canada for work, with Mexico and Jamaica accounting for 68% and 26%, respectively, of total entries in this category.
In the period 2009-2012, Canadian emigration to the rest of the OECD and to other American countries averaged 49,000 per year. In 2012, 50,800 Canadians entered another OECD country or another American country. The United States is home to the largest Canadian community abroad with almost 800,000 people. Canadians in the United States make up the sixth largest community of citizens of the Americas in this country, considering that as of 2010, the Dominican and Guatemalan communities surpassed the number of Canadians. Three out of four Canadians who acquire the nationality of another OECD country become US citizens, representing about 9,000 a year.
The United States remains the main country of destination but the number of permanent or temporary entries of Canadians to this country decreased between 2005 and 2012, from 19,100 to 17,400, a reduction due mainly to a decrease in permanent entries that fell to almost half in the same period (see Edfl Table Annex). The United Kingdom replaced Korea as the second country of destination. Germany attracted increasing numbers of Canadian citizens, but these remain low.
The insertion of Canadians of working age in the labor market of European OECD countries or the United States is favorable, since 70% are employed and less than 6% of the labor force is unemployed. This good performance has not changed in recent years.
In June 2014, Canada passed comprehensive legislative changes to the Citizenship Act. To better respond to labor market demand, an “Expression-of-Interest” application management system was launched in January 2015 designed to create a pool of skilled workers ready to start employment. work in Canada. These types of labor migration systems have already been successfully implemented in New Zealand and Australia in 2003 and 2012, respectively.
The Start-up Visa Program, launched in 2013, welcomed the first batch of successful entrepreneurial applicants in 2014. The Federal Investor and Entrepreneur programs closed in June 2014.
In 2012 the government undertook a review of the Parents and Grandparents Program with the intention of reducing application backlogs and long waiting times, and making it more fiscally sustainable in the long run. Since the launch of the new program, backlogs and waiting times have been reduced. New sponsorship criteria (effective 2014) require families to have the financial means to support those they sponsor.
In June 2014, a comprehensive reform of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program was announced. This includes the use of wage levels rather than national occupational classification as the primary approval criteria, a more rigorous Labor Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) process, and limits on the number low-income temporary foreign workers. The exceptions to the LMIA have been consolidated into an International Mobility Program. Both programs will be more strictly enforced by the employer through tougher penalties and funded by higher compliance fees.
Main indicators of migratory movements, the migrant population and the employment of emigrants
|Immigration (foreigners)||Number of people||Per 1000 inhabitants||Change in percentage|
|Permanent immigration (foreigners) by type||Number of people||% distribution|
|Accompanying family members||110400.26007872||83300.774387155||39.331739669644||32.168050196812|
|Temporary immigration (foreigners) by type||Number of people||% distribution|
|Emigration (nationals)||Number of people||% of the total||% change|
|Non-standardized data of destination countries||2009||2010||2011||2012||2012||2012/2009|
|All the countries||44566||49717||52282||50844||100||14.086972131221|
|Republic of Korea||6490||6505||5956||6012||11.824404059476||-7.3651771956857|
|Asylum applications and refugees||per million inhabitants||Number of people|
|Components of population growth||per thousand inhabitants|
|Natural growth (vegetative)||7.023||6.59||4.273||3.348||3.746|
|Foreign-born population||Percentage with respect to the total population||Personas||% change|
|remittances||Millions of dollars||% of GDP||% change|
|Macroeconomic indicators||Annual growth in %||Average annual growth||Level|
|Real Gross Domestic Product||3.4||2.5||1.7||2||2.4||–|
|Gross Domestic Product/per capita (PPP at 2011 international dollars)||2.2286387082305||1.519181725944||0.5051187164042||0.9||1.2755547188423||41899|
|Labor insertion of national emigrants in Europe and the United States||percentages|