The majority of emigrants from the Americas in the United States and Europe in 2010-2011 were of working age (Table 6.a). Approximately half of the emigrant population over 15 years of age was between 25 and 44 years of age, in contrast to the population born in the country of destination and immigrants from other parts of the world, for whom the proportions were 32%. and 44% respectively (see Box 3). The distribution of Caribbean migrants by age was slightly less skewed; indeed, the proportions of older emigrants in this group are similar to those found in the populations born in the countries of destination. The more balanced age distribution of Caribbean immigrants reflects a longer-standing pattern of migration,
The demographic differences between immigrants and those born in the country of destination in 2010-2011 were even more marked in Spain, where three out of five immigrants from the Americas were between the ages of 25 and 44, in contrast to 34 % of those born in the country. This reflects the more recent nature of migration to Spain, where there are fewer older immigrants than, for example, the United States, a country with a longer history of immigration in the 20th century.
For countries with an aging population, the immigration of young workers can provide a much-needed boost to the size of the labor force, as the large cohorts of the postwar baby boom reach retirement age. – lation in the coming decades. However, the economic crisis has slowed labor migration movements and there is considerable room for labor markets in destination countries to reabsorb before demographic imbalances can begin to reassert themselves, and it is likely that they will do so towards the end of the decade. On average, the working-age population is projected to increase by just 1% by 2020 in OECD countries, compared with almost 8% during the decade 2000-2010.
In the past, migration was often perceived as an action linked to men, who, once established, brought their families. As is well known, this pattern no longer exists. Emigrants from the Americas over the age of 15 in 2010-2011 were roughly evenly split between men and women. However, the proportion of women and men was different according to the regions and countries of origin. Of the emigrants from most Central American countries, particularly from Guatemala and Mexico, a higher proportion of men was observed. But a different pattern emerges from the migrant populations of the other regions of the Americas, showing the predominance of women.
The majority of emigrants from the Americas (82%) in 2010-2011 resided in the United States (Graph 7). The percentage of emigrants from Central America and the Caribbean who lived in the United States was even higher, reaching 99% for Mexican migrants. On the other hand, emigrants from South America resided more in Europe than in the United States. In 2010-2011, 56% of emigrants from the Andean Region and 65% of emigrants from the Southern Cone lived in Europe. Spain assumed the majority of emigrants from the Americas in Europe (57%); this being the case in particular of those who came from Paraguay (95%), Bolivia (92%), Uruguay (87%), Ecuador (84%) and Colombia (81%).
The emigrant population from the Americas in the United States in 2010-2011 had lived longer on average in that country compared to those who lived in Europe. Nearly three out of four émigrés from the Americas in the United States have been there for more than 10 years. This figure includes many unauthorized immigrants,11 most of whom have settled in that country. Emigration to Europe, and in particular to Spain and other southern European countries, is more recent, since only 43% of migrants have arrived more than 10 years ago. Migration from Bolivia and Paraguay is especially recent, with more than 90% having arrived in the last ten years. Between 58% and 67% of emigrants from Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Uruguay arrived in Europe between 2000 and 2010. Migration from the Caribbean,
Therefore, in recent decades the European continent has established itself as a new important destination for migrants from the Americas, especially for residents of South America. Spain, for its part, has received more than 5 million new immigrants in the 2000-2010 decade, which corresponded to almost 12% of its population in the year 2000. Of these, almost 2 million were
(Graph 7: Duration of residence in OECD countries of immigrants from the Americas and percentage living in the United States, 2010-2011)
Box 3: Comparing the characteristics of migrants from the Americas with the population born in the country of destination and migrants born elsewhere.
When comparing the labor market outcomes in the United States and Europe of emigrants from the Americas with those of the population born in the country of destination or of emigrants born elsewhere, one must remember that most emigrants from the Americas (92%) are concentrated in the United States and Spain. By comparison, only 45% of immigrants from other regions of the world reside in the United States and Spain. These two countries also represent 48% of the population of OECD countries. That is, when comparing the results of the labor force of migrants from the Americas with those of the population born in the country of destination or of migrants from other parts of the world, statistics for the population born in the country of destination tend to be affected by countries with few immigrants from the Americas. As a consequence, the measured differences in outcomes between migrants from the Americas and others may not necessarily reflect the differences that most migrants from the Americas experience or perceive in practice, which is largely based on the situation of only two countries.
This section contains statistics for the populations born in the country of destination, migrants born in the Americas, and migrants born elsewhere, in addition to corresponding statistics for these three groups in the United States and Spain, where lives the majority of migrants from the Americas.
of the Americas. The Great Recession of 2008-2009 had a devastating effect on the Spanish economy; The economy of the United States was also strongly affected, where an even higher percentage of migrants from the Americas lived. In particular, the construction sector, where many immigrants worked, was affected. Job opportunities are now much scarcer and competition with workers born in the country of destination of immigrants is more intense. This is reflected in the labor market outcomes of migrants from the Americas that will be examined in detail in a future section.